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skeletal code:
A set of instructions in which some parts, such as addresses, must be completed or specified in detail each time the set is used.

skew:
The angular or longitudinal deviation of a tape row from a specified reference.

skip:
(1) To ignore one or more instructions in a sequence of instructions. (2) To pass over one or more positions on a data medium; for example, to perform one or more line feed operations.

slab:
In artificial neural networks, a group of artificial neurons that share the same activation function and learning rule, and that have equivalent interconnection topologies. Slabs may be interconnected in a hierarchical fashion but other architectures are common.

slave station:
Synonym for subordinate station.

slice:
Synonym for array slice.

slider box:
Synonym for elevator.

SLIP:
Serial Line Internet Protocol.

slot:
(1) In artificial intelligence, in a frame, an element used to store features such as object names, attribute values, or pointers. (2) In data communication, a portion of a frame or a block of time. (3) In hardware, a position in a device used for removable storage media or peripheral devices; for instance: a floppy disk slot, an expansion slot.

slotted-ring network:
A ring network that allows unidirectional data transmission between data stations, by transferring data on predefined slot times in the transmission stream over one transmission medium.

slot time:
(1) In a CSMA/CD network, an implementation-dependent unit of time which, in case of collision, is used to determine the delay after which data stations may attempt to retransmit. (2) In a token bus network, the maximum time any data station must wait for a response from another station.

small computer system interface (SCSI):
A standard, general-purpose interface between computers and peripheral equipment. SCSI was originally designed for standalone personal computers. Usually pronounced skuh'zee.

smart card:
A credit card type electronic card that contains a microprocessor programmed to perform several functions when used at a suitable terminal. Examples of these functions are communications, identification, medical records, and electronic banking. Synonymous with chip card.

smiley:
See emoticon.

smooth:
To apply procedures that decrease or eliminate rapid fluctuations in data.

smooth shading:
A shading technique for giving a smooth appearance to curved surfaces of a solid object developed from a wireframe representation.

SMP:
symmetric multiprocessing.

SMTP:
Name of an application protocol providing means to transfer messages for electronic mail. SMTP is the abbreviation for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.

snapshot dump:
A copy of all or portions of the data contained in memory or in a database at a particular point of time.

SO:
The shift-out character.

socket:
(1) An element of a runtime object to which another runtime object may be attached. (2) A network endpoint identified by both an IP address and a port number, where the IP address identifies a server and the port number identifies a particular server, service, or application.

soft copy:
Nonpermanent output of data in audio or visual form; for example, a report on a video display unit. Contrast with hard copy.

soft error:
An error that occurs sporadically and that may not appear on successive attempts to read data. Synonymous with transient error.

soft hyphen:
A special character in a word, inserted automatically or by the user to mark where the word can be divided, and displayed as a hyphen when the word must be divided at the end of the line due to lack of space. Soft hyphens are subject to hyphen drop. Synonymous with discretionary hyphen. Contrast with hard hyphen.

soft page break:
A page break inserted by automatic pagination that may change its position during text editing. Contrast with hard page break.

soft sectoring:
The identification of sector boundaries on a magnetic disk by using recorded data. Contrast with hard sectoring.

software:
All or part of the programs, procedures, rules, and associated documentation of a data processing system or an information processing system. Software is an intellectual creation that is independent of the medium on which it is recorded. Contrast with hardware.

software engineering:
The discipline or the systematic application of scientific and technological knowledge, methods, and experience to the design, implementation, testing, and documentation of software to optimize its production, support, and quality.

software library:
In programming, a controlled collection of software and related documentation designed to aid in software development, use, or maintenance.

software package:
A complete and documented set of programs supplied to several users for a generic application or function. Some software packages are alterable for a specific application.

software piracy:
The unauthorized use, copying, or distribution of software products.

software tool:
Software used in the development, testing, analysis, or maintenance of a program or its documentation; for example: cross-reference generator, decompiler, driver, editor, flowcharter, monitor, test case generator, timing analyzer.

SOH:
The start-of-heading character.

solid modeling:
A three-dimensional geometric modeling that deals with the solid characteristics of an object in order to represent its internal structure as well as its external shapes. Synonymous with volume modeling.

solution space:
A conceptual or formal area defined by all of the states that constitute solutions for a given problem.

sonic delay line:
Synonym for acoustic delay line.

sonogram:
A graphical representation derived from processing of acoustical signals; for example, an image constructed from echoes (e.g., in sonar) or the representation of frequencies and amplitudes as a function of time.

sort:
(1) Ordering a set of data objects by some criteria, such as an alphabetic sequence on a key. (2) To segregate items into groups according to specified criteria without necessarily ordering the items within each group.

sort key:
A key used as the basis for determining the sequence of items in a set. Synonymous with sequencing key.

sort pass:
In a merge-sort program, a phase of the program that divides a set into subsets and sorts each subset. A merge phase is then begun to merge these sets into a single ordered set.

sort program:
A program that sorts items of data.

sound:
A vibration of air or other medium capable of causing a sensation through the auditory nerves.

sound board:
An electronic card adding sound capabilities to a computer system.

sound card:
An add-on adapter card that incorporates a synthesizer as the source for generating an acoustic signal. Synonymous with audio card.

source code:
Code expressed in a form suitable for input to an assembler, compiler, or other translator.

source code generator:
A software tool that accepts as input the requirements or design for a program and produces source code that implements the requirements or design.

source language:
A programming language used in a source program.

source module:
All or part of a source program sufficiently complete for translation. Contrast with compilation unit.

source node:
A node of an artificial neural network that supplies input signals to artificial neurons.

source program:
A program that a particular translator or interpreter can accept.

space:
(1) In text processing, a basic unit of area, usually the size of a single character. (2) One or more space characters. (3) In text processing, to advance, physically or logically, the print or display position according to a prescribed format. For example, to advance the print or display position horizontally to the right or vertically downward.

space character:
A character that causes the print or display position to advance one position along the line without producing any graphic character.

spamming:
The electronic version of junk mail, such as crossposting to multiple conferences without regard to the subject matter being discussed.

span:
(1) The difference between the highest and the lowest values that a quantity or function may take. Contrast with range. (2) Deprecated synonym for range.

spanner:
A spinning banner.

spatial frequency:
In computer vision, the reciprocal of the spacing between elements of an object in a scene; for example: the number of lines per inch.

spatial grid:
In computer vision, a directional reference grid in a space such as in an image or in a scene.

spatial noise:
In computer vision, the unwanted artifacts in an image that produce brightness variations with position.

spatial-occupancy enumeration:
In computer graphics, a special case of cell decomposition in which a solid is decomposed into identical cells arranged in a fixed, regular grid; for example, a cuberille. These cells are often called voxels. The most common kind of voxel is the cube. Contrast with quadtree.

spatial partitioning representation:
Solid modeling by decomposing an object into a collection of adjoining, nonintersecting solids that are more primitive than, although not necessarily of the same kind as the original solid; for example, in a quadtree. The primitives may vary in kind, size, position, parameterization, and orientation.

spatial resolution:
In computer vision, the minimum distance by which two lines or points in an image must be separated before they can be revealed as separate lines or points. The spatial resolution may also be expressed as a reciprocal, such as in lines per inch.

spatial sound:
A sound appearing to emanate from different, varying distances and directions.

spatial vision:
Vision in which data are used to derive the three-dimensional structure of the visual field; for example: a robot's use of spatial vision to determine direction and distance so as to avoid objects.

speaker adaptation:
A method of adaption of the speech recognition model, based on additional samples from the speaker. See also adaptive training and speaker-adaptive system.

speaker-adaptive system:
A speaker-independent system capable of modifying and updating its speech template to track differences among speech samples and improve its performance. The capability to improve performance is a kind of learning. Synonymous with user-tuned system.

speaker authentication:
Synonym for speaker verification.

speaker dependence:
Degree to which a speech recognizer needs to be trained to the speech patterns of individual speakers.

speaker-dependent recognition:
Recognition of speech samples from a registered speaker or group of speakers, based on previous training to their speech patterns

speaker-dependent system:
A speech recognizer, restricted to a registered speaker or a group of speakers, that has to be trained to their speech patterns; for example: single-speaker system, multispeaker system. Synonymous with SD system, speaker-trained system.

speaker identification:
A form of speaker recognition which compares a voice sample with a set of voice signatures corresponding to different persons to determine the one who has spoken.

speaker-independent recognition:
Recognition of speech samples from any speaker without previous training to his or her speech patterns.

speaker-independent system:
A speech recognizer opened to unregistered speakers, that can work reliably with speakers who have never, or seldom, used it. Synonymous with SI system, unrestricted recognition system.

speaker recognition:
The process of obtaining information on a particular speaker through the analysis of the speaker's vocal features.

speaker-trained system:
Synonym for speaker-dependent system.

speaker verification:
A form of speaker recognition for deciding whether a speech sample was spoken by the person whose identity was claimed. Speaker verification is used mainly to restrict access to information or facilities. Synonymous with speaker authentication.

speaking mode:
Each of the three manners of speaking to a speech recognizer, namely, isolated-words mode, contiguous-words mode, or continuous-speech mode.

special character:
A graphic character that is neither a letter, digit, nor blank, and usually not an ideogram; for example, a punctuation mark, a percent sign, a mathematical symbol.

special purpose computer:
A computer that is designed to operate upon a restricted class of problems.

special-purpose language:
A programming language that focuses its capabilities on a particular kind of application; for example: a form-filling language; Postscript.

specification:
A detailed formulation, in document form, that provides a definitive description of a system for the purpose of developing or validating the system.

specification language:
A problem-oriented language, often a computer-processible combination of natural language and artificial language, used for expressing the requirements, design, behavior, or other characteristics of a system or a component and that provides special language constructs and, sometimes, verification protocols used to develop, analyze, and document the specified entities.

specific coding:
Synonym for absolute coding.

speech:
Voice patterns in a given natural language or acoustic signals simulating such patterns.

speech analysis:
Extraction of characteristic parameters of a speech signal. Characteristic parameters include the nature of individual sound segments, syllable structures, prosodic features, morpheme structures, the lexicon, the syntax, and the long-term discourse constraints.

speech analysis system:
Synonym for speech analyzer.

speech analyzer:
A functional unit for speech analysis. Synonymous with speech analysis system.

speech bandwidth:
The range of speech frequencies that can be transmitted or recorded by a given system.

speech-based alerting:
A synthesized speech message that warns or informs a user of a condition; for example: a synthesized speech message indicating problems associated with the operation of an automobile.

speech clipping:
The limiting of peak signals to a maximum amplitude value.

speech coding:
Conversion of a digitized speech signal to a sequence of discrete data according to the rules that permit a reasonable reconstruction of that signal. Such data may be further encoded for speech compression or security. The term "speech coding" is often used for the combined operation of encoding, compression, and, possibly, encryption. Synonymous with speech encoding.

speech compression:
A speech processing technique for transmitting or storing a speech signal using less signal content, measured in time, frequency, or bits, than would be normally necessary; for example: prediction coding, subband coding, encoding using formants.

speech control:
Synonym for voice control.

speech digitization:
Synonym for speech digitizing.

speech digitizing:
Conversion of analog speech signals to digital signals. Synonymous with speech digitization.

speech encoding:
Synonym for speech coding.

speech frequency:
A frequency in the range essential for transmission or recording of speech.

speech input:
Speech signals received by a functional unit.

speech intelligibility:
Capability of a speech output to be understood correctly, usually measured as a percentage of speech units.

speech output:
Prerecorded or synthesized speech signals produced or reproduced by a functional unit.

speech pattern:
An underlying structure found in a speech signal.

speech pattern matching:
Matching of characteristic parameters extracted from a speech sample with those of a speech template prerecorded in a recognition vocabulary.

speech processing:
The processing of speech signals, such as in speech analysis, speech compression, speech recognition, and speech synthesis.

speech recognition:
(1) The perception and analysis, by a computer system, of the information carried by human voice. The information to be recognized can be a word in a predetermined word sequence, a phoneme of a predetermined language, or sometimes the speaker's identity through the vocal features of that speaker. (2) Conversion, by a functional unit, of a speech signal to a representation of the content of the speech.The content to be recognized can be expressed as a proper sequence of words or phonemes.

speech recognition system:
Synonym for speech recognizer.

speech recognizer:
A functional unit for speech recognition. A speech recognizer has a speech analyzer among its components and usually matches voice input with characteristic parameters of a speech template.

speech reconstruction:
The generation of a replica of the original speech from encoded data by the use of a functional unit.

speech signal:
An acoustic signal which carries information in a given language. A speech signal may be a voice signal or an acoustic signal simulating a voice signal.

speech spectrogram:
A graphical representation of frequency features of speech. Speech spectrograms are usually basic research tools in speech recognition. Synonymous with utterance spectrogram.

speech synthesis:
The generation of artificial speech by the use of a functional unit.

speech synthesis system:
Synonym for speech synthesizer.

speech synthesizer:
A functional unit for speech synthesis.

speech template:
Prerecorded or rule-based voice characteristics stored in a functional unit for reference, such as in a matching process.

speech-to-text conversion:
The conversion of speech input to text. Synonymous with STT conversion.

speech training:
The training of a functional unit to use the vocal features of one or more speakers.

speech understanding:
The production, by a functional unit, of an interpretation of information conveyed by speech signals. Speech understanding assumes previous extraction of information by a functional unit.

speech unit:
An elementary component of a speech pattern that can be used to synthesize such a pattern; for example: samples of actual speech may be used to record phonemes, diaphones, syllables, or even words as speech units. Alternatively, the speech units themselves may be generated using formant synthesis.

speech waveform coding:
Synonym for speech coding.

spell checker:
Software or function that verifies the spelling of words in text. Checking may be performed on words as they are being entered, or in subsequent processing.

spidernet:
A hybrid of a star network and one or more ring networks, resembling a spider web. A spidernet contains 3 classes of nodes: a central star with m branches, nodes on k inner rings with 4 branches each, and one peripheral ring. A spidernet may be expanded to higher dimensions.

spindle:
An axle for mounting a disk or a reel.

spiral track:
A track with a spiral shape written on a floppy disk, as part of a method of copy protection.

splash screen:
A temporary screen or window displayed by a computer to inform, warn, or alert the viewer that a significant event has happened or is about to happen. Splash screens are used to inform, to warn, or to alert the user of errors or to offer a choice for some system option or to advertise a product or to inform the user of progress in a process such as program installation.

split keyboard:
A keyboard that is designed to prevent typing fatigue and that is available in various ergonomic configurations such as curved or split rows of keys.

splitter:
In a local area network, a passive device used at a node to interconnect more than two branches. A splitter neither amplifies nor regenerates data signals.

splitting:
In electronic mail, a transmittal event in which a message transfer agent replicates a message or probe, in order to convey each new instance in the transmittal step to its immediate recipients in a different manner.

spoken command:
Predefined speech that can be recognized as a command by a functional unit. The user gives commands in the form of isolated words or word sequences drawn from a small vocabulary.

spoken-language identification:
Identification of the language or dialect a person is speaking from speech samples of that person.

spoken-language translation:
The process of recognizing speech in a source language, translating the message content into a target language, and synthesizing an appropriate spoken message in the target language, in order to provide communication between people who do not speak the same language.

spoken menu:
A menu offering the user a choice among a set of spoken options. Synonymous with voice menu.

spoken vocabulary:
A set of words and phrases that a speech synthesizer is able to employ in response to a user request. Synonymous with active vocabulary. Contrast with recognition vocabulary.

spoof:
To take action intended to deceive a user or a resource.

spooler:
Software, usually part of the operating system, that performs spooling.

spooling:
The use of external storage as buffer storage to reduce processing delays when transferring data between peripheral equipment and the processors of a computer. The term is derived from the expression "Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line".

spot punch:
A device for punching one hole at a time in a data medium.

spread:
Synonym for irrelevance.

spreadsheet:
An electronic metaphor for an accountant's worksheet, consisting of a table of cells arranged in rows and columns.

spreadsheet package:
Synonym for spreadsheet program.

spreadsheet program:
An application program that displays a table of cells arranged in rows and columns, in which the user can define relationships among those cells; a change of the contents of one cell can cause recomputation of one or more cells. Synonymous with spreadsheet package.

sprite:
(1) A visual entity that moves in front of a given background to create an animated sequence. (2) A two-dimensional graphic object that can be manipulated by the user without affecting its background.

sprocket feed:
A paper feed in which pins engage holes in the paper to be moved.

sprocket hole:
Synonym for feed hole.

sprocket track:
Synonym for feed track.

SQL (structured query language):
A standard database language for creating, updating, and querying relational databases. ANSI/ISO/IEC 9075-1-1999 Information Technology Database Language SQL and related standards.

square function:
The function that multiplies a number by itself directly.

square root function:
The function that directly provides a number that, when multiplied by itself, produces the original number.

SRAM:
static RAM.

SSDD:
single sided/double density.

SSL:
Secure Socket Layer.

stable coalition:
In artificial neural networks, a mutually excitatory group of artificial neurons that keep each other active during the stable state.

stable state:
(1) A state in which an entity remains until the application of a suitable pulse or occurrence of a suitable event. The suitable event may be the realization of a condition. (2) In artificial neural networks, the state in which the connection weights of all artificial neurons remain unchanged. A stable state occurs generally when the connection weights remain unchanged with further training, but may also occur in normal functioning, such as in a Hopfield network.

stack:
A storage concept in which data are ordered in such a manner that the next data item to be retrieved is the one most recently stored. This concept is characterized as "last-in-first-out". (Figure 23 - Stack, queue, and double-ended list).

stack indicator:
Synonym for stack pointer.

stack pointer:
The address of the storage location that contains the data item most recently stored in a stack. Synonymous with stack indicator.

stack register:
A register which contains a pointer to the entry point of a stack.

stadimetry:
In computer vision, the determination of distance based upon the apparent size of an object in the field-of-view of a camera.

stage:
In hypermedia and multimedia, the logical space mapped into a presentation medium where actions of a multimedia application take place.

staging:
In computer vision, a set of viewing conditions including the arrangement of the object, its presentation mechanisms, its illumination, and method of viewing.

staging drive:
A direct access storage device that is designated to receive data from a mass storage facility.

standard form:
Synonym for normalized form.

Standard Generalized Markup Language:
SGML.

star network:
A tree network in which all nodes except the root node are terminal nodes. (Figure 43 - Network topologies).

star/ring network:
A ring network with unidirectional transmission laid out in such a manner that several data stations are grouped and interconnected to the ring network by means of a trunk coupling unit. This configuration allows attaching and removal of data stations without disrupting network operation. (Figure 43 - Network topologies).

start-of-frame:
In data communications, a specified bit pattern that indicates the start of a frame. Synonymous with frame start delimiter. (Figure 27 - Frame in data communication).

start-of-heading character (SOH):
A transmission control character that is used as the first character of a message heading.

start-of-text character (STX):
A transmission control character that precedes a text and that may be used to terminate the message heading.

start signal:
(1) In start-stop transmission, a signal at the beginning of a character that prepares the receiving device for the reception of the code elements. A start signal is limited to one signal element generally having the duration of a unit interval. (2) A signal to a receiving mechanism to get ready to receive data or to perform a function.

start-stop transmission:
Asynchronous transmission such that each group of signal elements representing a character is preceded by a specific signal, called a start signal, and is followed by another signal, called a stop signal.

starvation:
A situation in which the execution of an asynchronous procedure is incapable of proceeding within any predictable interval of time because concurrent asynchronous procedures retain required resources.

state:
(1) A condition of an entity at a given instant, in terms of values of attributes that characterize that entity; for example: a switch may be set to the states "on" or "off". (2) The snapshot description of a problem at one stage of its solution.

state diagram:
Synonym for state transition diagram.

statement:
(1) An explicitly terminated syntactic unit either representing a declaration or prescribing a unit of work that includes identification of actions to be performed, operands (if any) to be used in performing these actions, and disposition of any results. Some programming languages do not consider declarations to be statements. (2) Deprecated synonym for instruction.

state transition diagram:
A diagram that depicts the state that a system or component can assume, and shows the events or circumstances that cause or result from a change from one state to another. Synonymous with state diagram. (Figure 58 - State transition diagram).

static:
Pertaining to objects that exist and retain their values throughout the execution of the entire program; for example: a subprogram variable that has been declared static to retain its values from one execution to the next.

static binding:
Binding performed prior to the execution of a program and not subject to change during execution.

static breakpoint:
A breakpoint that can be set during compilation; for example, a breakpoint may be set at a call of a given subprogram.

static buffering:
Assigning buffer storage for the duration of the execution of a program. Contrast with dynamic buffering.

static dump:
A dump that is performed at a particular time with respect to a machine, often at the end of a run, and usually under the control of the computer operator or a supervisory program.

static image:
Synonym for background image.

staticize:
Loosely, to retrieve an instruction and its operands from storage prior to its execution.

static RAM (SRAM):
A direct access RAM whose content does not need to be periodically refreshed.

static scope:
The scope as determined by finding the innermost surrounding module in which this declaration is made. Desk checking of a program is sufficient for finding a static scope.

static storage:
Storage that does not require periodic refreshment. Contrast with dynamic storage.

stationary information source:
Synonym for stationary message source.

stationary message source:
In information theory, a message source from which each message has a probability of occurrence independent of the time of its occurrence. Synonymous with stationary information source.

statistical multiplexer:
(1) A data concentrator that takes advantage of the statistic that the actual total input is not greater than the output capacity, even though the total input capacity may be. (2) Synonym for concentrator.

statistical time-division multiplexing (STDM):
Time division multiplexing in which the time intervals are allocated to each signal according to the needs evaluated at each instant, with the risk that the global demand may exceed at times the global capacity of the transmission channel.

status register:
A register containing one or more status bits or flags. Synonymous with flag register.

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