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privacy:
Freedom from intrusion into the private life or affairs of an individual when that intrusion results from undue or illegal gathering and use of data about that individual.

privacy key:
In a database management system, a password, a data item, or a procedure defined to identify users and to verify their authority to access specific portions of a database and to perform specific operations on the stored data. Synonymous with access control key, pass key.

privacy lock:
In a database management system, the facility specified to control access to a database in such a way that only authorized users may access specified portions of the database and perform only those operations on the stored data authorized specifically by the privacy lock. Synonymous with access lock, access control lock.

privacy protection:
The measures taken to ensure privacy. The measures include data protection and limitations on the gathering, combining, and processing of data about individuals.

private:
Pertaining to characteristics of language constructs that are not directly available to the user of these language constructs.

private domain name:
An attribute that identifies a private management domain relative to a country or relative to an administration management domain. (Figure 65 - Selected O/R address attributes). (Figure 66 - Examples of O/R addresses).

private key:
A key that is intended for decryption for the exclusive use by its owner.

private management domain (PRMD):
A management domain managed by an organization other than a telecommunications operator.

private part:
That part of a package declaration that provides structural details needed by the development process but irrelevant and unaccessible to the functional users of the package.

private type:
Within a program, a data type whose structure, set of values, and operations are defined but whose availability is restricted to privileged parts of that program; for example: in Ada, only assignment, equality, and inequality are available to users, except for any operations explicitly made accessible.

privileged instruction:
An instruction that can be executed only in a specific mode.

PRMD:
private management domain.

probe:
In electronic mail, an information object that is conveyed by means of message transfer and that is used to determine if messages can be delivered. The attributes contained in the envelope of the probe describe a class of messages the deliverability of which is to be determined. The probe may not be expanded by distribution lists.

problem definition:
A statement of a problem, which may include a description of the data, the method, the procedures, and algorithms used to solve it. Synonymous with problem description.

problem description:
Synonym for problem definition.

problem-oriented language:
A programming language that reflects the concepts of a particular application area; for example: SQL for database applications, COBOL for business applications. Synonymous with application-oriented language.

problem reduction:
A problem solving approach in which operators are used to decompose a single problem into several subproblems which are usually easier to solve than the original problem.

problem solving:
In artificial intelligence, a process in which one starts from an initial state and proceeds to search through a problem space in order to identify the sequence of operations or actions that will lead to a desired goal. Successful problem solving depends upon knowing the initial state, what an acceptable outcome would be given a desired goal, and the elements or operators that define the problem space.

problem space:
In artificial intelligence, a conceptual or formal area defined by all of the possible states that can be used in the analysis of interactions between elements and operators that are considered in a specific problem.

problem throughput:
A measure of the average time required for processing a problem or a batch of problems.

procedural cohesion:
Cohesion in which the activities of a module all contribute to a given procedure, such as an iteration or decision process.

procedural knowledge:
The knowledge that explicitly indicates the sequence of actions to be taken.

procedural language:
A programming language that provides the means to state what is to be achieved by the actions of a data processing system by giving specific statements or instructions to be executed in a specific sequence; for example: Ada, BASIC, C++, COBOL, Java, and Pascal. Synonymous with procedure-oriented language.

procedural security:
Synonym for administrative security.

procedure:
A subprogram that does not return a data value, except as part of the parameter mechanism. In COBOL, a procedure is a paragraph, or a group of logically successive paragraphs, or a section (consisting of zero or more paragraphs) within the procedure division. In some programming languages (i.e., C and C++), the procedure language construct is not differentiated from the function language construct except that returned data values may be void or not used. Synonymous with subroutine.

procedure call:
Synonym for procedure-call statement.

procedure-call statement:
A simple statement that provides the actual parameters for and invokes the execution of a procedure. Synonymous with procedure call. Contrast with function call.

procedure-oriented language:
Synonym for procedural language.

process:
(1) In data processing, the course of events that are caused by the execution of all or part of a program and that depend upon prevailing conditions. (2) In a data processing system, a course of events that occurs according to an intended purpose or effect. (3) To perform operations on data.

process computer system:
A computer system, with a process interface system, that monitors or controls a technical process. (Figure 53 - Process computer system).

process control equipment:
Equipment that measures the variables of a technical process, directs the process according to control signals from the process computer system, and provides appropriate signal transformation; for example: sensors, transducers, actuators.

processing unit:
A functional unit that consists of one or more processors and their internal storage.

process interface system:
A functional unit that adapts process control equipment to the computer system in a process computer system.

process interrupt signal:
A signal that originates from a technical process and that causes an interrupt in the process computer system.

processor:
(1) A functional unit that interprets and executes instructions. A processor consists of at least an instruction control unit and an arithmetic and logic unit. (2) A functional unit that interprets and executes instructions. A computer contains at least one processor. A processor consists of at least an instruction control unit and an arithmetic and logic unit.

processor time:
The sum of the time intervals in which a processor actually executes a program. Contrast with elapsed time.

product assurance:
The verification of the conformity of a product with applicable objectives, standards, specifications, and other requirements throughout the life of the product.

production planning control system (PPCS):
A data processing system used to generate, execute, and control manufacturing plans.

production rule:
An if-then rule for representing knowledge in a rule-based system.

production system:
Synonym for rule-based system.

product modeling:
Three-dimensional geometric modeling that deals with the data necessary for fabrication as well as the solid characteristics of an object. The data necessary for fabrication include information on material, tolerance, and the tools to be used.

profile:
In computer security, a description of the characteristics of an entity to which access is controlled.

program:
(1) A linguistic unit that conforms to the rules of a language and that may include declarations, statements, or instructions needed to solve a certain function, task, or problem. Synonymous with computer program. (2) To design, write, modify, and test programs. (3) Deprecated synonym for routine.

program counter:
Synonym for instruction address register.

program design language:
A design language with special language constructs and verification protocols, used to develop, analyze, and document the design of a program.

program generator:
A program that can produce other programs.

program library:
A organized collection of programs, or parts of programs, and possibly information pertaining to their use. A program library is often called according to the characteristic of its elements; for example, a procedure library, a source program library.

programmable:
Pertaining to a device that can accept instructions that alter its basic functions.

programmable array logic circuit:
An integrated logic circuit including a programmable input gate array of AND gates and a nonprogrammable output gate array of INCLUSIVE-OR gates. Programmable array logic circuits have many of the capabilities of field-programmable logic arrays but are simpler to program by a PROM programmer. Synonymous with PAL circuit.

programmable breakpoint:
A breakpoint whose location can be set by a programmer.

programmable calculator:
A calculator whose program can be changed by the operator.

programmable logic array (PLA):
An integrated logic circuit including an input gate array of AND gates and an output gate array of INCLUSIVE-OR gates, the connections between gates being realized in such a way as to perform any required switching function.

programmable read-only memory:
PROM.

programmable terminal:
A user terminal that has built-in data processing capability under the control of a program changeable by a programmer. Synonymous with intelligent terminal.

program maintenance manual:
A document that provides the information necessary to maintain a program.

programmer:
A person who designs, writes, and tests programs.

Programmer's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System (PHIGS):
A standard set of graphics support functions to control the definition, modification, storage, and display of hierarchical graphics data; for example, ISO/IEC 9592:1997 -- Information Technology -- Computer Graphics and Image Processing Programmer's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System (PHIGS).

programming:
The designing, writing, modifying, and testing of programs.

programming environment:
A collection of hardware and software tools to support the preparation of programs. Synonymous with programming support environment.

programming language:
An artificial language for expressing programs.

programming support environment:
Synonym for programming environment.

programming system:
In a programming environment, the programming languages and software tools required for the development and use of programs expressed in these programming languages.

program register:
Synonym for instruction address register.

program-sensitive fault:
A fault that may be detected, as an error, as a result of the execution of some particular sequence of instructions.

program specification:
A document that describes the structure and functions of a program in sufficient detail to permit programming and to facilitate maintenance.

program unit:
Synonym for module.

project:
An undertaking with prespecified objectives, magnitude, and duration.

project control:
The activities concerned with monitoring the progress of a project, its direction, quality, and resource utilization, as compared with project plans.

projected reality:
The image of a user in motion, projected along with other images onto a large screen, where the user can observe himself or herself as if within the scene.

projection:
An operation of relational algebra that forms a new relation by using a subset of the attributes from a given relation.

project management:
The activities concerned with project planning and project control.

projection panel:
A rectangular display panel that connects to a computer and uses an external light source for projection on a large screen.

project planning:
The activities concerned with the specification of the components, timing, resources, and procedures of a project.

project specification:
A specification of the objectives, requirements, and scope of a project and its relations to other projects.

Prolog:
A fifth-generation programming language that allows coding of precise facts and rules; it uses a declarative instead of a procedural approach making the programmer describe what must be computed instead of how to perform the work. Prolog then organizes how the computations are to be carried out. It is primarily used for applications in artificial intelligence and in the development of expert systems. The name is derived from programming logic.

PROM:
A storage device that, after being written on once, becomes a read-only memory. PROM is the abbreviation for programmable read-only memory.

P-ROM disk:
A type of optical disk that provides for a part of the disk surface to be prerecorded, reproduced by stamping or other means, and to be read without recourse to the magneto-optical effect. All parts that are not prerecorded provide for data to meet requirements of an R/W disk.

prompt:
A visual or audible message sent by a program to request the user's response.

proof of correctness:
A proof that results from applying correctness proving.

proof of delivery service:
A service that enables the originator of a message to obtain verification that the message has been delivered to its intended recipients.

proof of submission service:
A service that allows the originator of a message to obtain from the message transfer system the means to authenticate that the message was submitted for delivery to the intended recipients.

prop:
An entity taking no action of its own during the execution of a script.

propagate an exception:
To transfer control to the exception handler of a prior calling module or nesting module due to lack of required handling within a given module, or to explicitly raise the exception again within an exception handler.

property list:
A list containing attributes of an object or a symbol and their values used to describe knowledge states.

proportional spacing:
In text processing, the use of character boxes that vary in width proportional to the need of the character; for example: the character boxes for 'w' and 'm' are wider than those for 'a' and 'n' which, in turn, are wider than those for 'i' and 'l'. Contrast with monospacing.

proposition:
(1) An assertion about entities. (2) In the ANSI- SPARC database model, a conceivable state of affairs concerning entities about which it is possible to assert or deny that such a state of affairs holds for these entities.

proposition world:
In a conceptual schema language, a collection of propositions each of which holds for a given entity world.

prosodic rule:
Synonym for prosody rule.

prosody rule:
A rule applied to a sequence of phonetic symbols indicative of the sounds to be spoken, in order to provide markers specifying the speed of speech, intonation, pitch, loudness, and emphasis. Synonymous with prosodic rule.

protected location:
A storage location whose contents are protected against accidental alteration, improper alteration, or unauthorized access.

protection exception:
An exception that occurs when a program attempts to access a protected area in real memory or virtual memory.

protective coating:
A layer coated on top of the recording layer to protect from influences and emergency landing of a magnetic head.

protocol:
(1) A set of rules that determines the behavior of functional units in achieving communication. (2) In programming languages, the set of rules that determines the behavior of objects in the exchange of messages. (3) In OSI, a set of semantic and syntactic rules that determine the behavior of entities in the same layer in performing communication functions.

protocol control information (PCI):
In OSI, information exchanged between entities of a given layer, via the service provided by the next lower layer, to coordinate their joint operation. (Figure 54 - Data units in OSI layers).

protocol data unit (PDU):
In OSI, a block of data specified in a protocol of a given layer and consisting of protocol control information of that layer, and possibly user data of that layer. (Figure 54 - Data units in OSI layers).

prototype:
A model or preliminary implementation suitable for evaluation of system design, performance, and production potential; or for better understanding or determination of the requirements.

proxy server:
A server that is an intermediary between client workstations and servers for Internet traffic (such as Web servers), that provides document caching (to improve network performance) and filtering of requests to the Internet (to provide access control for improved security).

pruning:
A problem solving optimization technique for ignoring one or more branches in a search tree. Synonymous with cut-off.

pseudocode:
A combination of language constructs from a programming language with those of natural language that is not necessarily computer-processable, but intended to make the design of a program manifest to human readers.
Example
       IF the data arrive faster than expected,
               THEN reject every third input.
               ELSE process all data received.
       ENDIF.

pseudorandom number sequence:
A sequence of numbers that has been determined by some defined arithmetic process but is effectively a random number sequence for the purpose for which it is required.

PSK:
phase shift keying.

public key:
A key that is intended for use by any entity for encrypted communication with the owner of the corresponding private key.

public-key cryptography:
Cryptography in which a public key and a corresponding private key are used for encryption and decryption. If a public key is used for encryption, the corresponding private key must be used for decryption, and vice versa. Synonymous with asymmetric cryptography.

puck:
A pointing device that must be positioned manually on the pad of a graphics tablet in order to register input points when tracing display images.

pull-down menu:
A menu that appears below a menu bar when the user selects a name or an icon from the menu bar.

pull technology:
In networking, a technique used to enable an Internet user to get information of a chosen type in response to a prompt.

pulse:
Variation of a physical quantity where a transition from one value to another is followed immediately or after some time interval by a return to the initial value.

pulse repetition rate:
The number of pulses per unit of time.

pulse string:
Synonym for pulse train.

pulse train:
A regular sequence of a finite number of similar pulses. Synonymous with pulse string.

punch:
A device for making holes in a data medium.

punch card:
A card in which hole patterns can be punched.

punched card:
A card punched with hole patterns.

punched tape:
A tape punched with hole patterns.

punched tape reader:
An input unit that reads or senses the hole patterns in a punched tape, transforming the data from hole patterns to electric signals.

punching position:
Synonym for punch position.

punch path:
In a punch, a card path that has a punch station.

punch position:
A defined location on a data medium on which a hole may be punched to record data. Synonymous with punching position.

punch station:
The location in a punch where a data medium is punched.

punch tape:
A tape in which hole patterns can be punched.

push:
To add an item to the top of a stack. Contrast with pop.

pushbutton:
A physical or logical function key used to select from a set of alternative actions or objects. Synonymous with button.

pushdown list:
A list that is constructed and maintained so as to implement a stack.

push technology:
In networking, a technique used to enable an Internet user to automatically get information in the future based upon established criteria.

pushup list:
A list that is constructed and maintained so as to implement a queue.

pushup storage:
A hardware implementation of a queue.

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